(a) Precedential Effect of Summary Orders. Rulings by summary
order do not have precedential effect.
(b) Citation of Summary Orders.
(1) Summary Orders Issued On or After January 1, 2007. In a
document filed with this court, a party may cite a summary
order issued on or after January 1, 2007.
(2) Summary Orders Issued Prior to January 1, 2007. In a
document filed with this court, a party may not cite a
summary order of this court issued prior to January 1, 2007,
(A) in a subsequent stage of a case in which the summary
order has been entered, in a related case, or in any case
for purposes of estoppel or res judicata; or
(B) when a party cites the summary order as subsequent
history for another opinion that it appropriately cites.
(c) Citation Form. When citing a summary order in a document
filed with this court, a party must cite either the Federal
Appendix or an electronic database (with the notation “summary
(d) Service of Summary Orders on Pro Se Parties. A party
citing a summary order must serve a copy of it on any party
not represented by counsel.
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Last modified at 12/15/2009